One in Messiah Congregation

Targum study collected from various sources

and studies from the internet

This study should be enough to show:

John 1 [1] In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

some verses are duplicate

edited by Malachi Yosef

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The Teachings of The Targums

When the Jews returned from Babylonian captivity 450 years before the birth of Yeshua, they had adopted Aramaic as their native language.

Although it is a dialect of ancient Hebrew, Aramaic is about as different from it as modern Italian is from its classical Latin ancestor.

Consequently, during the first and early second centuries A.D., Aramaic translations of the Hebrew TaNaKh were made.

These translations, called Targums, were The Living Bibles of their day, an interpretive paraphrase of Scripture. They help us see how these first-century Jews understood their TaNaKh.

One of the striking things these Targums show is that first century Jews had come to understand the phrase "the Word of God" as referring to a divine entity within God Himself, yet distinguishable at times from God.

Again, the word Targum simply means translation or interpretation, but while any translation might call itself a targum, the word is usually reserved for ancient Aramaic translations of the Hebrew scriptures.

The Targums were authoritative Aramaic paraphrases of the books of the TaNaKh which were read in the synagogues along with the Hebrew of the Torah and Haftorah readings.

The need for Aramaic translations of scripture was felt as Hebrew declined in use during the Second Temple Period.

One tradition (some say) ascribes the first targum to Ezra himself. Some say, in the earliest days, targumim were not written down, but were likely informal translations made 'on the fly' after the Hebrew scriptures were read in the synagogues.

Targum fragments found in the Dead Sea Scrolls indicate that use of written targumim can be dated to pre-Christian times, and eventually two of these written Targumim, Targum Onqelos on the Pentateuch and Targum Jonathan on the Prophets gained official status, and were specifically designated for use in synagogue services.

In addition to these two official Targumim, there are several targumim covering various books of the Writing and other, competing Targums to the Pentateuch that never gained any official status.

Every book but Ezra-Nehemiah and Daniel (which were partially written in Aramaic to begin with) has at least one extant Targum.

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THE MEMRA, THE WORD OF THE LORD

Psalm 33 [6] By the Word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth.

The Aramaic word 'Memra', which means the ‘Word’ or ‘The Word of the Lord’, is used when physical manifestations of God appear or when God is mentioned more than once in the same verse.

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The Jerusalem Targum of Johathan ben Uziel renders Bereshit 1:27 as follows: "

Gen. 1 [27] So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

And the Word [Memra] of the Lord created man in His likeness, in the likeness of the Lord, the Lord created, male and female created He them."

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The Memra acts as a mediator between the Father and Creation:

And
I will establish my covenant between My Word [Memra} and between you

Targum Onkelos Gen. 17:7

Gen. 17 [7] And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee.

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Gen. 9 [17] And God said unto Noah, This is the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.


And
YHVH said to Noah, "This is the token of the covenant which I have established between My Word [Memra] and between all flesh that is upon the earth.

Targum Onkelos Gen. 9:17
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The Memra is God and is worshiped as such:

Gen. 28: [20] And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, [21] So that I come again to my father's house in peace; then shall the LORD be my God:

And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, "If the Word [Memra] of YHVH will be my support, and will keep me in the way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, so that I come again to my father's house in peace; then shall the Word [Memra] of Lord be my God.

Targum Onkelos on Gen. 28:20-21

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Gen. 22: [14] And Abraham called the name of that place Yehovah-Yireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.

And Abraham worshipped and prayed in the name of the Word [Memra] of YHVH, and said, "You are Lord who does see, but You cannot be seen."

Jerusalem Targum Gen. 22:14
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The Memra is God, yet is a separate personality from the Father and Holy Spirit:

And
the Word [Memra] of the Lord caused to descend upon the peoples of Sodom and Gommorah, brimstone and fire from the Lord in heaven.

Targum Jonathan on Gen. 19:24

Gen. 19 [24] Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;

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And
Israel saw the great strong hand of God, what He did to the Egyptians. They feared God and believed in His Word [Memra] and in His servant Moses.

Onkeles Targum on Exodus 14:31

Exodus 14 [31] And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses.

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Other Targum verses:

Genesis 1:27 - God created man.

Targum - The Word of the Lord created man.

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Genesis 6:6-7 - And it repented the Lord that He made man on the earth.

Targum - And it repented the Lord through His word that He made man on the earth.

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Genesis 9:12 - And God said, "This sign that I set for the covenant between me and you."

Targum - And the Lord said, "This is the sign that I set for covenant between my Word and you."

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Genesis 15:6 - And Abraham believed in the Lord.

Targum - And Abraham believed in the Word of the Lord.

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Genesis 20:3 - And God came to Abimelech.

Targum - And the Word from before the Lord came to Abimelech.

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Genesis 31: 49 - May the Lord keep watch between you and me.

Targum - May the Word of the Lord keep watch between you and me.

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Exodus 14:31 - And they believed in the Lord.

Targum - And they believed in the Word of the LORD.

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Exodus 20: 1- And the Lord spoke all these words.

Targum - And the Word of the Lord spoke all these words.

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Exodus 25:22 - And I will meet with you there.

Targum - And I will appoint my Word for you there.

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Leviticus 26:9- And I will turn to you.

Targum - And I will turn through my Word to do good to you.

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Numbers 10:35 - Rise up, O Lord!

Targum - Rise up, O Word of the Lord!

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Numbers 11:23 - Is the hand of the Lord shortened?

Targum - Is the Word of the Lord detained?

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Deuteronomy 1:30 - The Lord your God who goes before you, He Himself will fight for you.

Targum - The Lord your God who leads before you, His Word will fight for you.

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Deuteronomy 18:19 - I myself will require it of him.

Targum - My Word will require it of him.

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Deuteronomy 31:3 - The Lord your God will pass before you.

Targum - The Lord your God, His Word will pass before you.

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Joshua 1:5 - As I was with Moses I will be with you.

Targum - As my Word was in support of Moses, so my Word will be in your support.

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Judges 11:10 - The Lord will be witness between us.

Targum - The Word of the Lord will be witness between us.

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Isaiah 45:17 - Israel will be saved by the Lord.

Targum - Israel will be saved by the Word of the Lord.

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Jerusalem Targum Gen. 16:3 Hagar prayed int he name of the Word (Memra).

Onkelos Gen 28:20"then shall the Word (Memra) of YHVH be my G-d." (the actual biblical text according to RSV "than God will be my God.)

Onkelos Gen 17:7)I will establish my covenant between my Word (Memra) and between you."

Jerusalem Targum Ex. 20:1 The Word of YHVH is the Torah giver.

psuedo Jonathan Gen. 49:1) The Word of YHVH is savior.

Johnathan Is 45:17 Word is savior.

Johnathan Hosea 1:7) I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and I will save them by the Word of YHVH, their God

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The
Jerusalem Targum

Exodus 3 [14] And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

Rabbi Tzvi Nassi cites the Jerusalem Targum to Shemot (Exodus) 3:14:

And the Word [Memra] of the Lord said unto Moses: "I am He who said unto the world, ‘Be! And it was; and who in the future shall say to it, ‘Be! And it shall be." And He said: "Thus thou shalt say to the children of Israel;

I Am hath sent me unto you’."4

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Two YHVHs in the TaNaK - The Memra

"Whenever the Targums come to passages where YHVH is anthropomorphized or seen, or where two or more YHVHs are indicated by the text, the Targums will often substitute "The Word [Memra] of YHVH" for YHVH.

In Gen. 19:4 the Tenach says: And YHVH rained brimstone and fire upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah, from YHVH, from the heavens

The Hebrew grammar here indicates that one YHVH rains fire from another YHVH).

THe
Targum Jonathan substitutes "The Word of YHVH / the LORD" for the first of the two YHVHs as follows:

And the Word of the YHVH caused to descend upon the peoples of Sodom and Gommorah, brimstone and fire from the YHVH in heaven.

In another example the Torah, Ex. 24:1 - a (YHVH is the speaker, see Ex. 20:1-2)

Now He [YHVH] said to Moses, "come up to YHVH... "The Targum Jonathan paraphrases the speaker in Ex. 20:1 with the substitution "the Word [Memra] of YHVH" in place of "YHVH."

And the Word of the Lord spoke all these glorious words ... So it would seem that one of these entities called "YHVH" in these Torah passages was actually understood by the Targumists as being the "Word of YHVH."

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Targum
Onkelos:

Gen 22 [14] And Abraham called the name of that place Yehovah-Yireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.

Gen 22:14 Abraham worships prays in the name of Word (Memra-Devar)

"You are the YHVH who does see, but you cannot be seen." Abraham prays "in the name of the Word of YHVH" to the YHVH who "cannot be seen."

Here two YHVH are very apparent. Abraham is praying in the name of the Word of YHVH but is praying to the YHVH who cannot be seen.

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Jerusalem Targum Ex. 3:14

And the Word [Memra] of YHVH said to Moses: "I am He who said unto the world 'Be!' and it was: and who in the future shall say to it 'Be!' and it shall be."

And He said: "Thus you shall say to the children of Israel: 'I Am' has sent me to you."

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The Fragmentary Targum of the Torah also expresses that the Word of YHVH was the Creator:The first night, when the "Word of YHVH" was revealed to the world in order to create it, the world was desolate and void, and darkness spread over the face of the abyss and the "Word of the Lord" was bright and illuminating and He called it the first night.

Fragmentary Targum Ex. 12:42

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That the Word of YHVH was the Creator can also be seen in the Tenach itself: By the Word of YHVH were the heavens made, And all the hosts of them by the Spirit of His mouth. (Ps. 33:6)

The Word was also the covenant maker. For example the Noachdic covenant was between the Word and all mankind:And YHVH said to Noah, "This is the token of the covenant which I have established between My Word [Memra] and between all flesh that is upon the earth.

Targum Onkelos Gen. 9:17

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Can't say enough...

Often when the Targums come to passages where YHVH is seen, or where two or more YHVHs are indicated by the text, the Targums will substitute "The Word [Memra] of YHVH" for YHVH.

In Gen. 19:4 And YHVH rained brimstone and fire upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah, from YHVH, from the heavens. The Hebrew grammar here indicates that one YHVH rains fire from another YHVH)

But Targum Jonathan substitutes "The Word of YHVH / the LORD" for the first of the two YHVH as follows:

And the Word of the YHVH caused to descend upon the peoples of Sodom and Gommorah, brimstone and fire from the YHVH in heaven.

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In Ex. 24:1 - a (YHVH is the speaker, see Ex. 20:1-2) Now He [YHVH] said to Moses, "come up to YHVH..."

Targum Jonathan paraphrases the speaker in Ex. 20:1 with the substitution "the Word [Memra] of YHVH" in place of "YHVH"

And the Word of the Lord spoke all these glorious words...

One of these entities called "YHVH" in these Torah passages was actually understood by the Targumists as being the "Word of
YHVH
." It was, according to Targum Onkelos, this Word of YHVH that Abraham trusted in:

And Abraham trusted in the Word [Memra] of YHVHand He counted it to him for righteousness.


Targum
Onkelos Gen. 15:6

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Moreover Abraham prayed in the name of the Word of YHVH: And Abraham worshipped and prayed in the name of the Word [Memra] of YHVH, and said, "You are YHVH who does see, but You cannot be seen."

Jerusalem Targum Gen. 22:14

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Note that here Abraham prays "in the name of the Word of YHVH" to the YHVH who "cannot be seen."

Here two YHVH are very apparent. Abraham is praying in the name of the Word of YHVH but is praying to the YHVH who cannot be seen.

This idea is reinforced elsewhere as follows: And Hagar praised and prayed in the name of the Word [Memra] Of YHVHs who had revealed Himself to her

Jerusalem Targum Gen. 16:3

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It was this Word of YHVH that Jacob also trusted in: And Jacob vowed a vow, saying,"If the Word [Memra] of YHVH will be my support, and will keep me in the way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, so that I come again to my father's house in peace; then shall the Word [Memra]of YHVH be my Elohim.

Targum Onkelos on Gen. 28:20-21

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King David also urged Israel to trust in the Word of Yah as the Targum of Psalm 62 reads: Trust in the Word of Yah at all times, O people of the house of Israel! Pour out before Him the sighings of your heart; Say, Elohim is our trust forever. (Targum on Psalm 62:9)

This "Word of YHWH" was, according to Targum Jonathan, the Creator:

And the Word [Memra] of YHWH created man in his likeness, in the likeness of YHVHs, YHVH created, male and female created He them.

Targum. Jonathan Gen. 1:27

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Jerusalem Targum Ex. 3:14

And the Word [Memra] of YHVH said to Moses: "I am He who said unto the world 'Be!' and it was: and who in the future shall say to it 'Be!' and it shall be." And He said: "Thus you shall say to the children of Israel: 'I Am' has sent me to you."

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Fragmentary Targum Ex. 12:42 of the Torah also expresses that the Word of YHVHs was the Creator:

The first night, when the "Word of YHVH" was revealed to the world in order to create it, the world was desolate and void, and darkness spread over the face of the byss and the "Word of the Lord" was bright and illuminating and He called it the first night.

The Word of YHVH was the Creator can also be seen in the Tenach itself:

By the Word of YHVH were the heavens made, And all the hosts of them by the Spirit of His mouth. (Ps. 33:6)

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The Word was also the covenant maker. For example the Noachdic covenant was between the Word and all mankind:

And YHVHs said to Noah, "This is the token of the covenant which I have established between My Word [Memra] and between all flesh that is upon the earth.

Targum Onkelos Gen. 9:17

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The Word also made the Abrahamic covenant as Targum Onkelos also paraphrases:

And I will establish my covenant between My Word [Memra] and between you

Targum Onkelos Gen. 17:7

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The Word of YHVH was also the giver of the Mosaic Covenant and the Torah as the Jerusalem Targum (as quoted above) makes the Torah giver "the Word of YHVH" in Ex. 20:1. It was to the Word that Jacob turned to for salvation:

Our father Jacob said: "My soul does not wait for salvation such as that wrought by Gideon, the son of Joash, for that was but temporal; neither for a salvation like that of Samson, which was only transitory; but for that salvation which You have promised to come, through Your Word unto Your people, the children of Israel; for your salvation my soul hopes."

Targum Jonathan Gen. 49:18

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The Word of YHVH is the savior is expressed here: But Israel shall be saved by the Word of YHVH with an everlasting salvation By the Word of YHVH shall all the seed of Israel be justified

Targum Jonathan Is. 45:17, 25

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But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and I will save them by the Word of YHVH, their Elohim.

Targum Jonathan Hosea 1:7

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We do not follow Kabbalah or Mysticism

Gerschom Scholem (December 5, 1897February 21, 1982), also known as Gerhard Scholem, was a Jewish philosopher and historian raised in Germany.

He is widely regarded as the modern founder of the scholarly study of Kabbalah, becoming the first Professor of Jewish Mysticism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Scholem is best known for his collection of lectures, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941) and for his biography Sabbatai Zevi, the Mystical Messiah (1973). His collected speeches and essays, published as On Kabbalah and its Symbolism (1965), helped to spread knowledge of Jewish mysticism among non-Jews.

He was awarded the Israel Prize in 1958 and was elected president of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in 1968.

Gershom Scholem states:

...the memra-- the paraphrase used in the Targumim, the Aramaic Bible translations, to refer to God's word.

The memra is not merely a linguistic device for overcoming the problem of biblical anthropomorphisms; it has theological significance in its own right.

The memra....is.... a world-permeating force, a reality in the world of matter or mind, the emmanent aspect of Elohim, holding all things under its ominpresent way.

On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead: Basic Concepts in the Kabbalah, by Gershom Scholem pg 181-182:

All of this sheds much light on Yochanan 1:1 (John 1:1): In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with Elohim, and the Word was Elohim.

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By The Late Rev. Sam Stern

MOSES AND MEMRA

Onkeles Targum, which is a translation of the Bible from Hebrew into Aramaic, uses the word memra in place of the Hebrew word dabar to denote the Word of God and also God Himself.

Other translators, Rabbi Jonathan ben Uzziel and Targum Yerushalmi, also translate the "word of God," "God," and "me" and other words as memra; thereby they indicate that they believe memra to be not just an ordinary word, but a special name of God.

An early instance of this usage deals with Moses commanding the going-forward of the ark in the wilderness and then the resting of the ark, both after he prayed to God:

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And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses [Exodus 14:31].

In the above verse, Onkeles translates the words "and believed the LORD" as "and believed in his memra." The Hebrew word used for LORD in the above verse is YHVH (yod, hay, vav, hay). Therefore, in his translation Onkeles equates YHVH with memra as follows:

And Israel saw the great strong hand of God, what He did to the Egyptians. They feared God and believed in His memra and in His servant Moses.

Jonathan ben Uzziel also says in regard to Exodus 14:31 that Israel believed in the memra of God, although only the words "feared the LORD" and "believed the LORD" appear in the Scripture itself. He translates this portion almost the same as Onkeles does, word for word, including "the memra of God."

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Later on, as Moses began to lead the children of Israel through the wilderness toward the land of Canaan, the Bible relates their journeying with the ark of God:

And it came to pass, when the ark set forward, that Moses said, Rise up, LORD, [YHVH], and let thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate thee flee before thee. And when it rested, he said, Return, O LORD [YHVH], unto the many thousands of Israel [Numbers 10:35, 36].

Jonathan ben Uzziel uses the word memra in place of God’s name Yehovah in his version of the above quoted passage to denote the Word of God:

When they took the ark to move they waited till Moses prayed, and he asked for mercy from God and said, Reveal through thy memra the strength of God’s anger, that the enemies of thy people may disperse, and their enemies may not be able to stand against you.

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In verse 36, which tells of the ark stopping, Jonathan ben Uzziel continues to use the same word to mean the Word of God, or God:

And when the ark came to a stop the cloud surrounded them and they stood, and they did not rest until Moses stood in prayer and asked mercy from God and said, Do good to us as the memra of God with your mercy for thy nation of Israel. And blessed is the shekinah [restings] among them and have mercy upon thousands of the house of Jacob and ten thousands of Israel.

Targum Yerushalmi says regarding verse 35 that it is the memra of God who prevails:

When the ark was taken, Moses stood in prayer and said: Let the memra of God stand in the strength of thy army and the enemies of thy nation may run before you.

In the following, verse 36, Yerushalmi follows this usage:

When the ark rested, Moses bent his hands in prayer and said, Go back as the memra of God from thy anger and do good in thy mercy, and bless the tens of thousands of Israel.

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The First Commandment

Even in the giving of the law, in the first commandment to worship the Lord, Jonathan ben Uzziel says that the memra is present. Deuteronomy 6:13 reads as follows in the Bible itself:

Thou shalt fear the LORD [YHVH], thy God, and serve him, and shalt swear by his name.

Although the actual phrase "word of the LORD" does not appear in this verse, Jonathan ben Uzziel indicates that "by his name" has the same meaning:

Ye shall be afraid in the presence of the LORD your God and Him shall ye serve, and in his memra ye shall swear in truth.

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The Use of Memra in Joshua

Jonathan ben Uzziel also follows this practice in Joshua 2:12, which deals with the period after Moses died and the command of bringing the children of Israel into the Promised Land fell to Joshua. The Bible verse reads:

Now therefore, I pray you, swear unto me by the LORD [YHVH]

Jonathan ben Uzziel translates:

Now swear unto me by the memra of God…

Jonathan ben Uzziel’ s translation indicates that he considers memra to be the same as the most holy name of God, which Jewish people are too much in awe to utter.

After Joshua made peace with the Gibeonites, the Israelites came in contact with them in their journey, but honored their pact and did not smite them. Joshua 9:19 relates that the princes said to those who murmured against this agreement that they had sworn by the LORD GOD [Yehovah Elohai].

Onkeles Targum translates as follows:

But all the princes said to all the congregation, We swore to them in the memra of God, the God of Israel, and now we cannot do any harm to them.

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Memra Used in I Samuel and Psalms

Further in the Bible, in I Samuel 20:23, a covenant between Jonathan and the house of David mentions the LORD [YHVH]:

And as touching the matter which thou and I have spoken of, behold, the LORD be between thee and me forever.

Onkeles Targum, however, translates I Samuel 20:23 thus: And the thing we spoke of, you and I, this is the memra of God between thee and me forever.

When David and Jonathan part, (end of verse 23), they refer to the covenant between them. The Bible again says: "The LORD be between me and thee forever."

However, Targum Onkeles translates: Said Jonathan to David, Go in peace. We both swore in the name of God to say God’s memra will be between you and me, between my sons and your sons forever.

Psalm 62:8 reads as follows: Trust in him at all times; ye people, pour out your heart before him: God is a refuge for us. Selah.

Onkeles translates thus, equating memra with God: Trust in the memra at all times, ye nation of Israel, pour out your heart. The word of God will protect you forever.

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Noah’s Ark

The Bible records in Genesis 9:17 that God established a covenant with Noah after the ark landed safely:

And God [Elohim] said unto Noah, This is the token of the covenant which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.

Although the words Elohim and "me" appear in the Hebrew,

Onkeles translates as follows: And God said to Noah, This is the sign which I established between my memra and between all flesh which are on the earth.

Jonathan ben Uzziel, in his comment on Genesis 9:17, uses the same key word in place of "me": And God said to Noah, This is the sign between my memra and between all flesh.

In addition to his translation of Genesis 9:17,

Onkeles also uses memra in place of "me" in verses 12, 13 and 15 of the same chapter to mean God. Jonathan ben Uzziel also writes memra instead of God.

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El Gibbor and Abraham

Genesis 17 relates how the Almighty God [El Gibbor] came to Abraham and told him he would make a covenant with him. Verse 7 reads as follows:

And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee.

Jonathan ben Uzziel translates: And I will establish my covenant between my memra and thee..

Jonathan ben Uzziel shows that God’s covenant with Noah and with Abraham was, in reality, made between them and His holy name or memra.

Targum Yerushalmi, another ancient translator of the Bible into Aramaic, lends great strength to this view in Genesis 49:18 by adding his own comments to explain the meaning of the verse. Genesis 49:18 appears in a passage where Jacob blesses his sons and reads simply as follows:

I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD.

Yerushalmi, however, translates and interprets verse 18 as follows: Our father, Jacob says, My soul does not wait for the salvation of Gideon the son of Joash, that was but temporal. And not to the redemption of Samson, which was only transitory. But for that salvation thou hast said in thy memra, to bring to the children of Israel thy salvation, my soul is waiting.

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Memra Used in Isaiah

Jonathan ben Uzziel uses the word memra in the writings of the greatest Jewish prophet, Isaiah, in chapters 45 and 46. In translating this prophetic book, Targum Jonathan teaches a central point in the Jewish religion at that time: that Israel can be saved only by the Word of God. Isaiah 45, for example, reads in part, as translated from the original Hebrew:

But Israel shall be saved in the LORD [YHVH] with an everlasting salvation: ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end [verse 17].

Jonathan ben Uzziel translates as follows: Israel will be redeemed by the memra of God, an everlasting redemption. They will not be ashamed forever and ever.

Jonathan ben Uzziel follows the same practice in Isaiah 45:22. The verse reads in the Bible:

Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God [El], and there is none else.

Jonathan ben Uzziel writes: Turn to my memra all dwellers on earth. I am the LORD, there is no other.

In the following verse, 23, Jonathan ben Uzziel translates "the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness" as "my memra went out in righteousness;" and in verse 24, he writes, Only in the Lord’s memra will be said justice and in the strength of his memra will they come. However, this section reads in the Bible as follows:

Surely shall one say, In the LORD have I righteousness and strength: even to him shall men come;"

In Isaiah 46:3 the Bible reads: Hearken unto me, O house of Jacob…

Jonathan ben Uzziel translates the word "me" as memra.

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Memra in Hoshea

Hosea 1:7, which deals with God’s mercy and salvation, says:

But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will save them by the LORD their God [Yehovah Elohaym], and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen.

Consistent with his belief that Israel will be saved by the Word of God,

Jonathan ben Uzziel writes: But I will have mercy on the house of Judah. I will have mercy on them with the memra of the LORD their God, not with the bow and the sword, with horses and carriages..

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It is clear to see that these three ancient Bible translators used the Aramaic word memra to mean God, the Word of God [translated from the Hebrew word dabar] or Me, when referring to important occasions in the life of Israel. They also translated to memra in regard to God’s covenants.

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LOGOS

The interpretation of the meaning of the words logos and memra shows that Judaism and Christianity hold some of the same theological tenets. The following study, although brief, bears out the fact that both persuasions have followers who believe that these two words mean the Word of God who is a Person.

Although the Greek word logos, which originated as a concept of the Stoics,

can have different meanings, when John uses it in his gospel and epistles it takes on a distinct spiritual meaning, as in the following:

In the beginning was the word [logos] and the word was with God, and the word was God [John 1:1].

In this opening verse of the Gospel of John, logos is shown as both eternal and pre-existent. It is at the same time introduced as one with God the Father—"was God"—and also distinct from God the Father—"with God."

John also uses the word logos in his first epistle as follows:

That which was with us from the beginning… of the Word of life [1 John 1:1].

…the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost [1 John 5:7].

Logos in the above two verses of the Gospels and Letters has the same meaning as it has in John 1:1 when context is considered.

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Some more of the same...

H3983 îŕîř memar - may-mar

(Chaldee); corresponding to H3982: - appointment, word.

BDB Definition:

1) word, command

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H3982 îŕîř maamar - mah-am-ar'

From H559; something (authoritatively) said, that is, an edict: - commandment, decree.

BDB Definition:

1) word, command

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H565 ŕîřä ŕîřä imra^h emra^h - im-raw', em-raw

The second form is the feminine of H561, and meaning the same: - commandment, speech, word.

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H561 ŕîř emer - ay-mer

From H559; something said: - answer, appointed unto him, saying, speech, word.

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H559 ŕîř amar - aw-mar'

A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude): - answer, appoint, avouch, bid, boast self, call, certify, challenge, charge, + (at the, give) command (ment), commune, consider, declare, demand, desire, determine, expressly, indeed, intend, name, plainly, promise, publish, report, require, say, speak (against, of), still, suppose, talk, tell, term, that is, think, use [speech], utter, verily, yet.

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The above is the equivalent of logos (λόγος), Strong's 3056, in the Greek.

G3056 λόγος logos - log'-os

From G3004; something said (including the thought); by implication a topic (subject of discourse), also reasoning (the mental faculty) or motive; by extension a computation; specifically (with the article in John) the Divine Expression (that is, Messiah): - account, cause, communication, concerning, doctrine, fame, have to do, intent, matter, mouth, preaching, question, reason, + reckon, remove, say (-ing), shew, speaker, speech, talk, thing, + none of these things move me, tidings, treatise, utterance, word, work.

G3004 λέγω legō - leg'-o

A primary verb; properly to “lay” forth, that is, (figuratively) relate (in words [usually of systematic or set discourse; whereas G2036 and G5346 generally refer to an individual expression or speech respectively; while G4483 is properly to break silence merely, and G2980 means an extended or random harangue]); by implication to mean: - ask, bid, boast, call, describe, give out, name, put forth, say (-ing, on), shew, speak, tell, utter.

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J.W. Etheridge, in the introduction to his translations of the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, has given us a number of examples of this Jewish understanding of the term, "the Word" (Aramaic: Memra).

In Genesis 18:1, where the Hebrew Bible says Yehovah appeared to Abraham, the Targum says, "The Word of the Lord appeared to Abraham." Further on, where the Hebrew reports "Yehovah rained down upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from Yehovah out of heaven," the Targum states that "the Word of the Lord sent down upon them sulphur and fire from the presence of the Lord out of heaven." (Genesis 19:24)

In Genesis 16, when Hagar sees "the Angel of the Lord," the Targum says she saw "the Word of the Lord." After seeing this "Word" (Memra) she says, "Here has been revealed the glory of the Shekineh of the Lord."

Then, according to the Jerusalem Targum, "Hagar returned thanks and prayed in the name of the Word of the Lord, who had appeared to her." Thus the Word not only is regard- ed as the presence of deity, but is in some manner personally distinguishable from the Lord.

In Genesis 28:20 the Targum of Onkelos paraphrases Jacob's vow, "If God will be with me... then Yehovah will be my God" with the words, "If the Word of the Lord will be my help... the Word of the Lord shall be my God." Again, the Angel of Yehovah who spoke to Moses at the burning bush (Exodus 3:14) is designated by the Jerusalem Targum as "the Word of the Lord."

The distinct personality of this Divine Word is seen pointedly in Jonathan's Targum of Isaiah 63:7-10.

There, where the Hebrew text speaks of Yehovah being their Savior, the Targum reads, "the Word (Memra) was their Redeemer." (vs. 8) When the Israelites continued to disobey, then "His Word (Memra) became their enemy, and fought against them" -- an action ascribed to Yehovah in the Hebrew text. Again in Isaiah 45:22 the Targum of Jonathan exhorts, "Look unto My Word and be saved."

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We don't believe everything Philo said, however.....

Philo, an Egyptian Jew and contemporary of Yeshua

The only major Jewish rabbi who dealt with the subject of logos was Philo Judaeus. As a Hellenist and rabbi of the Great Synagogue in Alexandria, he exerted great influence among the early Christians and also interpreted Bible teachings to his Jewish Greek contemporaries.

Philo personified the Word of God in the Psalms in the following verses:

By the word of the LORD were the heavens made... (Psalm 33:6).

He sent his word and healed them, and delivered them from their destructions (Psalm107:20).

He sendeth forth his commandment upon earth: his word runneth very swiftly (Psalm 147:15).

Philo portrayed The Word or Logos as the creator, the healer and God’s Word as used in these three verses in the Psalms. The Hebrew name for "word" in the above quotations is dabar, the same word that the Targums later translated into the Aramaic memra. Philo taught that the logos was the image of God, as well as of divine man.

Another verse that Philo used to show that logos is divine is I Chronicles 21:16, which reads as follows in the Bible:

And David lifted up his eyes, and saw the angel of the LORD stand between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem...

Here Philo interprets the sword of God as logos, and taking it a step further, as God, who judges in wrath.

Needless to say, the Jewish rabbis do not look favorably on Philo and his ideas about logos. However, the early Christian church adopted his interpretations and incorporated them into their concept of the Word of God as the second person of a triune godhead.

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While this personalizing of the Word was being expressed in Palestine in the Targums of Yeshua' day, Philo, an Egyptian Jew and contemporary of Yeshua, was expressing similar thoughts in even more distinct words. In his essay "On the Creation," Philo states that man was not made in the image of some creature, but in the image of God's own uncreated Word. He wrote: "for the Creator, we know, employed for its making no pattern taken from among created things, but solely, as I have said, His own Word."

Philo continues: "Man was made a likeness and imitation of the Word, when the Divine Breath was breathed into his face. ("On the Creation," XLVIII: 139, Loeb Edition I, pp. 110-111)

In his work on Noah, Philo again expresses the teaching that man is made by "the First Cause" (that is, God) in the image of "the Eternal Word:" "Our great Moses likened the fashion of the reasonable soul to no created thing, but averred it to be a genuine coinage of that dread Spirit, the Divine and Invisible One, signed and impressed by the seal of God, the stamp of which is the Eternal Word."

He continues: "...man has been made after the Image of God (Genesis 1:27), not however after the image of anything created... man's soul having been made after the image of the Archetype, the Word of the First Cause." ("Noah's Work as a Planter," I:18-20, Loeb III, pp. 222-223)

Thus, the eternal Word is in some sense distinguishable from God, and yet at the same time is, like God, uncreated, rational and the bearer of the divine image. This comes very close to the teaching of the Gospels and letters that the Word was distinguishable from God, and yet was God. As John 1:1 expresses it, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."

It also appears similar to Paul's teaching that the Son is "the image of the invisible God" (Colossians 1:15); and the writer of Hebrews statement that the Son "is the exact representation of His being." (Hebrews 1:3)

Philo, however, goes further. He says that God is the king and shepherd of all creation, but rules and controls it through his eternally existing Word, whom Philo calls God's "First-born Son."

His "hallowed flock" of created things God directs by his divine laws, setting over it His true Word and first-born son, who shall take upon Him its government like some viceroy of a great king. ("On Husbandry," I:51, Loeb III, pp. 134-135)

Philo has God expressing Himself in this manner: "I alone... sustained the Universe to rest firm and sure upon the Mighty Word, who is My viceroy." ("On Dreams," I:241, Loeb V, pp. 424- 425)

Therefore this eternal Word, God's first-born Son, is the upholder of the whole creation, "the everlasting Word of the eternal God is the very sure and staunch prop of the Whole. He it is, who extending Himself from the midst to its utmost bounds... keeps up through all its length Nature's unvanquished course, combining and compacting all its parts. For the Father who begat Him constituted His Word such a Bond of the Universe as nothing can break." ("Noah's Work as a Planter," I:8-9, Loeb III, pp. 216-217)

This reflects the same thought that Paul expressed about the Son as being the one "in whom all things hold together." (Colossians 1:17) It also reminds also reminds us of Hebrews 1:3, which depicts the Son as "sustaining all things by his powerful Word."

Philo continues his discussion of the Word by maintaining that to those incapable of seeing the supreme cause, God Himself, He appears to them in the form of His Angel, the Word: "For just as those who are unable to see the sun itself, see the gleam of the parahelion and take it for the sun, and take the halo round the moon for that luminary itself, so some regard the image of God, His Angel, the Word, as His very self." ("On Dreams," I:239, Loeb V, pp. 422-423)

This sounds very similar to the teaching tha t the Son is "the radiance (or outshining) of God's glory" (Hebrews 1:3), the only part of God's nature that people are allowed to see. This is true because "no one has ever seen God," but "the only begotten God... He has made Him known." (John 1:18) Thus, Yeshua, the Son, can say, "Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father." (John 14:9)

Philo further explained that God, being light, is "the archetype of every other light." As such He is "prior to and high above every archetype." Thus

He holds the position of "a model of a model," that is, He is the model for His Word, which Word becomes the model for creation. The Word, therefore, contains all the qualities of God. As Philo expressed it, "the model or pattern was the Word which contained all His fullness -- light, in fact." ("On Dreams," I:75, Loeb V, pp. 336-337) Paul expressed a similar thought when he wrote that in the Son all God's fullness dwells. (Colossians 1:19; 2:9)

To Philo, therefore, the Word of God is the eternal, uncreated Word containing all the fullness of God and bearing His image. That divine image which the Word bears is the image in which man was created. The Word is further the sustainer, upholder and ruler of the world, carrying on the governing of all things, as God's viceroy, and containing all God's fullness.

While the Word is not a created thing and carries on all the functions of God, Philo is clear that there are not two gods -- although he does not attempt to explain how this can be. Philo's teaching is, therefore, very close to the biblical doctrine of the "3 is 1".

Philo reached his conclusions without the aid of the Gospels and Letters and certainly without deriving his ideas from pagan notions of deity. The TaNaKh teaching that the Angel of Yehovah is really the presence of Yehovah Himself seems to have strongly influenced Philo's ideas.

To relegate (to send or consign to an inferior position, place, or condition) the doctrine of the "3 is 1" to a fourth- century adaptation of paganism is to ignore the conclusions that several Jewish theologians and teachers had reached four centuries earlier, from God's revelations given to Israel before the time of the coming of Messiah.

At the very time that the Word was becoming flesh (John 1:1, 14),

Jewish writers were already beginning to see that God's Word could in some way be distinguished from God the Father Himself, yet have all the fullness of God contained in Him…

John 1 [1] In the beginning was the Word,

and the Word was with God,

and the Word was God.

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and there is

STILL ONE GOD!

Shalom



Targum is mentioned in Talmud 108 times, look these up if you have a Talmud

Talmud - Mas. Berachoth 8a text and once the [Aramaic] Targum,

Talmud - Mas. Berachoth 8b twice the Hebrew text and once Targum; be careful with the jugular veins to follow [the teaching of] R. Judah, as we have learnt: R. Judah says: He must cut through the jugular veins; and be careful

Talmud - Mas. Berachoth 8b are left untranslated in the Targum should be recited in Hebrew and in the Aramaic version.

Talmud - Mas. Berachoth 28a as rendered by R. Joseph [in his Targum]:37 Destruction comes upon the enemies of Israel38 because they put off till late the times of the appointed seasons39 in Jerusalem.

Talmud - Mas. Berachoth 28a (37) To R. Joseph is ascribed the Targum on the prophets, v. Graetz, Geschichte, IV, 326.

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 33b Cant. I, 8. The Midrash and the Targum interpret the whole of this poem as a dialogue between God and Israel, This verse is explained: If you do not understand how to keep God's commandments, go and

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 64a (33) Metargeminan, i.e., in the Targum, the Aramaic version of the Scriptures. The citation given here by R. Joseph is from the Targum ascribed to Onkelos the proselyte.

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 64a here by R. Joseph is from the Targum ascribed to Onkelos the proselyte.

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 87a have alienated him from God, v. Targum Onkelos a.l.

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115a stated: If they are written in Targum10 or in any [other] language, — R. Huna said: They must not be saved from a fire; while R. Hisda ruled: They may be saved from a fire. On the view that it is

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115a is raised: If they are written in Targum or in any [other] language, they may be saved from the fire: this refutes R. Huna? — R. Huna answers you: This Tanna holds, They may be read. Come and hear: If

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115a taught: If they are written in Targum or in any language, they may be saved from a fire. R. Jose said: They may not be saved from a fire. Said R. Jose: It once happened that my father Halafta visited

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115a of Johanan b. Nizuf with the Targum of the Book of Job in his hand19 which he was reading. Said he to him, ‘I remember that R. Gamaliel, your grandfather, was standing on a high eminence on the

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115a portions of the Bible are called Targum — the translation par excellence. But v. Kaplan, op. cit. pp. 283 seq.

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115a (19) This shows that a Targum of Job existed already in the middle of the first century C.E. This is not identical with the extant Targum, which on internal evidence must have been composed later; v.

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115a is not identical with the extant Targum, which on internal evidence must have been composed later; v. J.E. art.

Targum, Vol. XII, p. 62; Zunz, G. V. 64 seq.

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115a been composed later; v. J.E. art. Targum, Vol. XII, p. 62; Zunz, G. V. 64 seq.

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115a The objection to writing down the Targum was probably due to the fear that it might in time be regarded as sacred. V. also Kaplan, op. cit., p. 285.

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115b be only if they are written in Targum or any [other] language; but here that they are written in Hebrew, we may rescue [them]. Or perhaps even on the view that we may save [them], that is only when

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115b He refuted him: If Targum is written as Mikra,17 or Mikra is written in Targum or in Hebrew characters,18 they must be saved from a fire, and the Targum in Ezra, Daniel and the Torah [the Pentateuch] go

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115b Mikra,17 or Mikra is written in Targum or in Hebrew characters,18 they must be saved from a fire, and the Targum in Ezra, Daniel and the Torah [the Pentateuch] go without saying. Now, what is the

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115b be saved from a fire, and the Targum in Ezra, Daniel and the Torah [the Pentateuch] go without saying. Now, what is the Targum in the Torah? [The words], Yegar sahadutha;19 and though it does not

Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 115b without saying. Now, what is the Targum in the Torah? [The words], Yegar sahadutha;19 and though it does not contain eighty-five letters [it must be saved]? — That was taught in respect of completing

Talmud - Mas. Pesachim 68a (19) [V. Targum version a.l. The Targum on the Prophets is ascribed by some to R. Joseph. V. B.K., Sonc. ed. p. 9, n. 9.]

Talmud - Mas. Pesachim 68a (19) [V. Targum version a.l. The Targum on the Prophets is ascribed by some to R. Joseph. V. B.K., Sonc. ed. p. 9, n. 9.] Talmud - Mas. Rosh HaShana 27a authorized Aramaic translation (targum) of it.

Talmud - Mas. Yoma 9a It occurs in this form in the Targum Num. XIX, 2.) He said: If a cow that has no speech and no mind, recognized her Creator, should I, whom my Maker created in His image, not go and acknowledge Him.

Talmud - Mas. Yoma 23a in a fragment of the Jerusalem Targum on Isa. XI, 2 that the condition made by Nahash for the offered covenant was that the Gileadites remove the injunction from the Torah barring the Ammonites from

Talmud - Mas. Yoma 77b (22) V. Targum on Prophets a.l.

Talmud - Mas. Sukkah 28a According to Meg. 3a, he wrote a Targum to the Prophets, and wished to translate the Hagiographa, but was prevented. The extant Targum to the Prophets is pseudo-Jonathan.

Talmud - Mas. Sukkah 28a but was prevented. The extant Targum to the Prophets is pseudo-Jonathan.

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a R. Hiyya b. Abba — also said: The Targum4 of the Pentateuch was composed by Onkelos the proselyte under the guidance5 of R. Eleazar and R. Joshua.6 The Targum of the Prophets was composed by Jonathan

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a of R. Eleazar and R. Joshua.6 The Targum of the Prophets was composed by Jonathan ben Uzziel under the guidance of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi,7 and the land of Israel [thereupon] quaked over an area

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a further sought to reveal [by] a targum [the inner meaning] of the Hagiographa, but a Bath Kol went forth and said, Enough! What was the reason? — Because the date11 of the Messiah is foretold in it.12

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a Onkelos the proselyte compose the targum to the Pentateuch? Has not R. Ika said in the name of R. Hananel who had it from Rab: What is meant by the text, And they read in the book, in the law of God,

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a this indicates the targum,14 ‘and they gave the sense’: this indicates the verse stops; ‘and caused them to understand the reading’: this indicates the accentuation,15 or, according to

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a this] said: Were it not for the targum of this verse, we should not know what it means.18 [It runs as follows]: ‘On that day shall there be great mourning in Jerusalem like the mourning of Ahab son of Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a named Aquilas. The Aramaic Targum probably took shape about the same time, but there is no authority except this passage for connecting it with anyone of the name of Onkelos. We may surmise

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a on the subject v. J.E. s.v. Targum, and Silverstone, E.A. Aquila and Onkelos.

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a (9) The Targum of Jonathan b. Uzziel is very paraphrastic, and applies many of the prophetic verses to the Messianic age.

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 3a (14) Which shows that the targum dates back to the time of Ezra.

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 8b the Aramaic translation known as Targum Onkelos, and the Greek translation of Aquilas made under the supervision of R. Eleazar and R. Joshua.

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 15a the sense of ‘transgressed’, cf. Targum a.I.: ‘and he transgressed the joy of the feast of Passover’.] The order for the destruction of the Jews was given in Susa on the thirteenth day of Nisan, and

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 17a IF HE READS IT IN A TRANSLATION [TARGUM] IN ANY LANGUAGE,20 HE HAS NOT PERFORMED HIS OBLIGATION. IT MAY, HOWEVER, BE READ TO THOSE WHO DO NOT UNDERSTAND HEBREW21 IN A LANGUAGE OTHER THAN HEBREW. IF ONE

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 17a (20) [MS.M. If he read it in Targum (Aramaic); if he read it in any other language. The text of cur. edd. can also bear this interpretation, v. Rashi 18a s.v. vtre].

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 21b (1) I.e., reads the Aramaic Targum.

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 21b on the ground that there is no Targum to the Hagiographa. Tosaf., however, points out that there is such a Targum, though it is not attributed to Jonathan b. Uzziel; v. supra 3a.

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 21b points out that there is such a Targum, though it is not attributed to Jonathan b. Uzziel; v. supra 3a.

Talmud - Mas. Megilah 23b each verse, in the Aramaic Targum.

Talmud - Mas. Chagigah 2b freewoman; v. Deut. XXIII, 18 and Targum Onkelos a.l.

Talmud - Mas. Mo'ed Katan 7b commentary a.l. also J. Targum a.l.

Talmud - Mas. Mo'ed Katan 9b (8) Ps. XLIX, 12. Cf. Targum.

Talmud - Mas. Mo'ed Katan 9b (30) Cf. Targum Sheni on Esth. II, 12.

Talmud - Mas. Mo'ed Katan 15a (12) Ezek. XXIV, 17-23.Cf. Targum ad loc.

Talmud - Mas. Mo'ed Katan 16a (10) ‘Summoned’, so the Targum.

Talmud - Mas. Mo'ed Katan 16a Jer. XLVI, 17-18. V. Rash. Cf. Targum and Rashi ad loc cit.

Talmud - Mas. Mo'ed Katan 25b XXXV, 23-25; Rashi on v. 25; Targum on Lam. IV, 20; infra p. 188 and Ta'an. 22b.

Talmud - Mas. Mo'ed Katan 27a covered with rich coverlets. V. Targum and Kimhi on Ezek. XXIII, 41 vsucf vyn . In Lewin, Otz. Hag. No. 208 it is explained by ,jcuan vyn and SBH explains it by vcuaj vyn. Cf. Persius, Sat. III, 103,

Talmud - Mas. Mo'ed Katan 28b said, Had we not the [Aramaic Targum] rendering of that text, I would not have known what it said there: ‘In that

time the mourning at Jerusalem will be as great as the lament over Ahab son of Omri

Talmud - Mas. Yevamoth 121a (7) ,kdhs, Heb kesv cf. Targum on Gen. II, 14.

Talmud - Mas. Kethuboth 112b text cited (v.supra n. 12). [Cf. Targum a.l. and B.K., Sonc. ed. p. 9. n. 9].

Talmud - Mas. Nedarim 37b to Scripture; ‘distinctly,’ to Targum;7 ‘and they gave the sense’, to the division of sentences; ‘so that they understood the reading,’ to the accentuation; others say, to the masoroth.8

Talmud - Mas. Nedarim 37b (7) Targum, ‘translation’, generally refers to the Aramaic translation of the Bible. In Mishnaic phraseology it might refer to a translation from Hebrew or the Bible into any language, (v. J. Kid. 59a,

Talmud - Mas. Nedarim 37b II, 1; Shab. 115a), but the word Targum by itself was restricted to the Aramaic version of the Bible. This Aramaic translation was publically read in the synagogue, along with the original text, and

Talmud - Mas. Nedarim 38a [This is the rendering of Targum Pseudo-Jonathan; v. B.K. (Sonc. ed.) p. 9, n. 9.]

Talmud - Mas. Nazir 3a translated,’ referring to the Targum on the Prophets ascribed to R. Joseph. V. B.K. (Sonc. ed.) p. 9, n. 9. The reading that follows is, however, not found in our Targum.]

Talmud - Mas. Nazir 3a is, however, not found in our Targum.]

Talmud - Mas. Nazir 39a with whom is the rendering in the Targum2 as ‘from the kernels even unto the skins’?3 — In agreement with the opinion of R. Jose.4

Talmud - Mas. Nazir 39a (2) V. Targum Onkelos on Num. VI, 4.

Talmud - Mas. Sotah 12b maid’ or ‘ammathah ‘her arm’. The Targum of Onkelos renders by ‘her arm’.

Talmud - Mas. Gittin 2a southern border of Palestine, [v. Targum Onkelos loc. cit. Josephus (Ant. IV. 7, 1) who names the place Arekem (cf. oerv in our Mishnah) identifies it with Petra. Hegar is identified by Hildesheimer,

Talmud - Mas. Gittin 8a (3) The Targum, Pseudo-Jonathan, of ‘Hor the mountain’, the northern boundary of Eretz Israel, Num. XXXIV, 7. [This is not to be confused with Mount Hor by the border of the land of Edom which is in the

Talmud - Mas. Gittin 68b grow there. (This is what the Targum means by nagar tura).3 So they found out a woodpecker's nest with young in it, and covered it over with white glass. When the bird came it wanted to get in but

Talmud - Mas. Gittin 68b saws the rock’: the rendering in Targum Onkelos of the Hebrew ,phfus generally rendered by hoopoe; Lev. XI, 19.

Talmud - Mas. Gittin 68b (7) So Targum Onkelos.

Talmud - Mas. Kiddushin 13a (17) So Targum, Pseudo.Jonathan, v. B.K. (Sonc. ed.) p. 9, n. 9.

Talmud - Mas. Kiddushin 49a The Aramaic translation known as Targum Onkelos; v. Bacher, Die Terminologie der Tannaiten, pp. 205 et seq., also art. ‘Targum’ in J.E.

Talmud - Mas. Kiddushin 49a pp. 205 et seq., also art. ‘Targum’ in J.E.

Talmud - Mas. Kiddushin 72b Now they should possess it. [V. Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on the Prophets, a.l.; cf. also Geiger, Urschrift p. 52ff who proves from here that, rznn is a compound word from rz ogn ‘a strange people’, and

Talmud - Mas. Baba Kama 3b ascribe the edition of the Targum on the prophets to him, v. Graetz (Geschichte IV, 326.]

Talmud - Mas. Baba Kama 16a (31) I.e., a species of bat; cf. Targum Jonathan Lev, XI, 19, where Heb. ;kyg is rendered tsprg.

Talmud - Mas. Baba Kama 17a he was an evil doer.] See Targum on Zech. XII, 11, and Meg. 3a.

Talmud - Mas. Baba Kama 38a which is rendered in the Targum14 ‘to leap withal upon the earth’.

Talmud - Mas. Baba Kama 38a (14) Targum Onkelos, the Aramaic version of the Hebrew Bible; cf. J.E. s.v.

Talmud - Mas. Baba Kama 38b [Rekem is identified by Targum Onkelos Gen. XVI, 14, with Kadesh; by Josephus (Ant. IV, 7, 1), with Petra.]

Talmud - Mas. Baba Kama 116b (46) In Targum Onkelos a.l.; cf. however Rashi there.

Talmud - Mas. Baba Bathra 73b (20) hsa zhz is rendered by the Targum (Ps. L, 11). ‘the wild cock whose ankles rest on the ground and whose head reaches the sky’.

Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 17a V. Pirke de R. Eliezer, ch. 24; Targum Jonathan on Gen. XI, 8, and Rashi on Deut. I, 5. As it is impossible for one man to know all these languages, he must have meant that amongst them all, all the

Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 64a places of the Land of Israel; Targum Jerus. Num. XXIV, 8; Targum Jonathan b. Uzziel a. I. (Jast.).

Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 64a Targum Jerus. Num. XXIV, 8; Targum Jonathan b. Uzziel a. I. (Jast.).

Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 94a which is borne out by the Targum.

Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 94b R. Joseph said: But for the Targum14 of this verse, I would not know its meaning: Because this people have wearied of the Davidic dynasty, which rules them with gentleness like the waters of

Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 101b 11, is rendered by the Samaritan Targum tdtu. S. Krauss, Sanh-Mak. p. 271, translates: ‘in a corrupt, barbarous language,’ debasing thereby the Holy Name; cf. Rashi.]

Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 106b (39) [ihyukjk, v. Targum Onkelos and Jonathan.]

Talmud - Mas. Makkoth 7b accident (Han. Cf. Rashi and Jer. Targum Deut., a.l.).

Talmud - Mas. Makkoth 23b Cf. Rashi and Pseudo-Jonathan (Targum) a.l., and Gen. XIV, 18.

Talmud - Mas. Avodah Zarah 9a 5. These words are taken by the Targum and other Rabbinic commentators to refer to the heathen men and women whom Abraham and Sarah respectively gained for the worship of God.

Talmud - Mas. Avodah Zarah 12b (5) hrhrca Aram. ‘blindness’; v. Targum to Gen. XIX, 11. Generally taken as a contraction of the words vhtr rcua breaker of the eyesight. Kohut, s.v. hrhrc asserts that the correct reading is

Talmud - Mas. Avodah Zarah 17b in Scripture is rendered in the Targum,6 ‘It is a counsel of the wicked’;7 and Scripture has the phrase, wonderful is His counsel and great His wisdom?8 But in that case the word should have been

Talmud - Mas. Avodah Zarah 17b (6) V. Targum Onkelos.

Talmud - Mas. Avodah Zarah 44a (12) [The edition of the Targum to the Prophets is ascribed to him.]

Talmud - Mas. Chullin 80a the Rabbis maintain, since the Targum14 renders [Teo as] ‘the wild ox’, it is certainly a species of cattle, whereas R. Jose maintains, since it is reckoned together with the other species of wild

Talmud - Mas. Chullin 132b (22) So Targum Onkelos: ucrk ‘as a distinction, as a mark of eminence’.

Talmud - Mas. Chullin 139b verse: Flowing myrrh,20 which the Targum renders as mira dakia.21 WHICH ARE THEY THAT ARE ‘NOT AT ONE'S DISPOSAL’? etc. R. Hiyya and R. Simeon [b. Rabbi differ]: One reads [in the Mishnah] ‘Hadresioth’,

Talmud - Mas. Bechoroth 41a Ex. XXXVI) being translated in Targum Onkelos ;hpku .

Talmud - Mas. Bechoroth 50a is twenty gerahs,7 which the Targum8 renders ‘twenty ma'ah’, and it has been taught: Six ma'ah silver make one denar.9 An objection was raised: Does not the holy sela’ contain forty-eight

Talmud - Mas. Bechoroth 50a (8) Sc. Targum Onkelos.

Talmud - Mas. Nidah 31b (9) I.e., by the Targum Onkelos.

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